- [What is canon?]
- [Why do we need a canon?]
- [Differences in canon]
[Development of the canon]
- [Development of the Old Testament]
- [The Apocrypha]
- [Development of the New Testament]
[Principles of translation]
- [Formal Equivalence]
- [Dynamic Equivalence]
[Which translation should I read?]
[Listing of English Translations]
- [American Standard Version (ASV)]
- [Amplified Bible (AMP)]
- [Analytical-Literal Translation (ALT)]
- [Authorized Version (AV)]
- [Contemporary English Version (CEV)]
- [Cotton-Patch Version (CPV)]
- [Darby Translation]
- [Douay-Rheims (DRV)]
- [God’s Word]
- [Good News Bible (GNB)]
- [Jerusalem Bible (JB)]
- [King James Version (KJV)]
- [Literal Translation of the Bible (LITV)]
- [Living Bible]
- [The Message]
- [New American Bible (NAB)]
- [New American Standard Version (NASB)]
- [New English Bible (NEB)]
- [New English Translation (NET)]
- [New International Version (NIV)]
- [New International Readers Version (NIrV)]
- [New King James (NKJV)]
- [New Living Translation (NLT)]
- [New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)]
- [New World Translation (NWT)]
- [Revised English Bible (REB)]
- [Revised Standard Version (RSV)]
- [Revised Version (RV)]
- [Today’s English Version (TEV)]
- [Young’s Literal Translation (YLT)]
[Listing of Bible Types]
One subject that has come up many times is the issue of Bible history
Bible versions. Who decided which books should be in the Bible? What is
difference between the NIV
and King James? Which version is the best?
does the Catholic Bible have more books? This can be a very confusing
to some people.
My hope in this page is to provide a little bit of background on the
where it came from, and why we have the books we have. In addition,
a *very brief* introduction to textual criticism, and a run-down on
various English Bible translations and types. Somewhere in the middle,
have my own personal preferences on Bible versions listed.
What is canon?
The Bible, also known as The Holy scriptures, is a type of canon. The
“canon” comes from the Greek word *kanon*, which means *a rod used to
measure*. When refering to the Bible, *canon* refers to *the list
of books considered authoritative* as Scripture.
Why do we need a canon?
For the Jews living during the Old Testament times there was no need for
canon — they had the prophets alive and in their presence. Likewise,
the early church, they had Jesus Christ and the apostles. Once the
and apostles were dead, however, it became necessary to gather their
and preserve them.
This process of preservation and establishment of canon served serveral
purposes. It sought to: define what was inspired, and what was not;
a corruption of the inspired words of God; ensure the inspired words of
not be lost; and preclude the possibility of additions to inspired
Differences in canon
There is still ongoing debate among churches regarding the canon. For
Old Testament, Protestant Christians from the Reformation onward,
shorter canon (39 books) from the Hebrew Palestinian Canon. Jews now
same canon as the Protestant Old Testament, but the order and division
some of the books is different, giving them a total of 24 books.
Catholic Christians accept the longer Old Testament
canon (46 books) from the Greek Septuagint translation of the
Canon. This adds Tobit, Judith, Greek additions to Esther, Wisdom of
Sirach, Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah, 3 Greek additions to Daniel,
and the Dragon, and 1 and 2 Maccabees to the Protestant OT
Greek Orthodox church adds 1 Esdras, Prayer of Manasseh, Psalm 151,
3 Maccabees for their canon. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church adds
1 Enoch, and Josippon’s History of the Jews.
For the New Testament, Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Greek Orthodox
Christians view the same 27 books as canonical. The Syrian church
only 22 books (excluding 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and Revelation).
Ethiopian Orthodox Church includes 8 additional books (four sections
Sinodos, two sections from the Ethiopic Books of Covenant, Ethiopic
and Ethiopic Didascalia).
Development of the canon
The canon did not just happen overnight, neither for the Old Testament,
the New Testament. The canon is the result of development through time.
canon of the Old Testament was mainly fixed (with a few books still in
dispute) by the about the year 400 B.C.
The canon of the the New
was mainly fixed at the council at Carthage in 387 A.D.
I say “mainly”
fixed, because there are still differences between churches.
Development of the Old Testament
The formation of the Old Testament was spread over many centuries. The
holy books of the Hebrews were Moses’ books of law, which were placed
Ark of the Covenent.^[]
^ When Solomon built
he added books of history and prophecy from Joshua’s to David’s time,
as writings of his own.^[]
^ About fifty
years after the
temple was rebuilt, Ezra made a collection of the sacred writings,
included Jonah, Amos, Isaiah, Hosea, Joel, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah,
Obadiah, and Habakkuk. ^[]
^ To this was
added the books
of Nehemiah, Malachi, and Ezra. In addition, Nehemiah gathered the
the Kings and the Prophets, and those of David,” when founding a
the second temple, c.432 B.C.^[]
The first significant canon of the Old Testament in the form we now have
was the work of Ezra and the Great Synagogue, composed of Ezra,
Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. However, there were still disputes.
By the first century BC
, the Hebrew speaking Jews in Palestine were
generally use the Palestinian canon. This consisted of 24 books divided
three Sections: the Law (5 books of Moses or Pentateuch); the Prophets
former and 4 latter prophets) and the Writings (11 books). The
likely did not accept Daniel because it 2 supports resurrection of the
which they did not believe in. Others, like Samaritans, accepted only
Pentateuch as Scripture. The Jewish historian Josephus wrote (c. 90 AD
Jews recognized 22 books. The Essenes (around the time of Jesus) did
accept Esther. Greek speaking (Hellenistic) Jews used the Septuagint,
a translation put together around the third century B.C.
by elders of
at Alexandria, Egypt (see [The Apocrypha] below).
After the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in 70 AD
, the Jamniaa
council, led by Yohanan ben Zakkai, decided at to adopt the Palestinian
Many people ask why the Bible used by the Roman Catholic church has
books in it than the typical Protestant Bible. These “apocryphal” or
“deuterocanonical” books are Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (also known as
Judith, I and II
Maccabees, Tobit, Wisdom of Solomon, and additional
chapters of Daniel and Esther. The most religiously important of the
are Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon, while the most
important is 1st Maccabees.
These books appear in the Bible as used by the Roman Catholic, Eastern
Orthodox, and Armenian and Ethiopian Oriental Orthodox churches. There
also a few other books (I & II
Esdras, The Letter of Jeremiah, Prayer
Azariah, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, and Prayer of Manasseh) which
frequently lumped in with the apocrypha.
The early church was founded by Hellenistic Jews; naturally, they used
Septuagint. There are passages in the gospels and epistles where Jesus
Paul quote from the Septuagint: 300 of 350 quotations from the Old
in the New Testament are from the Septuagint. So while the Jews may
settled on the Palestinian canon by the early first century, the
church did not.
Justin Martyr (c 160) regarded the Septuagint as canon, as did Iranaeus
Tertullian. Tertullian also considered the book of Enoch (not part of
Septuagint) inspired. Melito, bishop of Sardis (c 170) recognized the
Palestinian canon minus Esther. Origen’s (c 185-254) list of Old
books comprises of the Palestinian canon plus the Letter of Jeremiah
Septuagint. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria in 367 gave the same list
Origen but included Baruch and omitted Esther. The list of Old
books given at Council of Laodicea (c 363) follows that of Athanasius
Esther. Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem from 348 to 386 follows Origen’s
included Baruch while Gregory of Nazianzus (c 330 - 390) followed that
Athanasius. Jerome (346 - 420) gave us the well known Latin Vulgate. He
doubts about the Septuagint canonical status, but included the extra
his Latin translation and referred them as *apocrypha*.
Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430) followed the Septuagint. In 382 Pope
approved the Septuagint at the Council of Rome. It was then declared at
Church Council in Hippo in 393 and subsequently reaffirmed at third
of Carthage in 397. The fourth council of Carthage in 419 again
same list of Old Testament.
At the time of the protestant reformation, the reformers sought a return
the original sources (*ad fontes*). They adopted the Palestine canon
for the Old Testament, pointing to several issues with the apocypha:
never quoted by Jesus or the apostles; the last inspired prophet closes
saying no other messenger is to be expected until the second
^ divine authority is not claimed
by any of the writers, and
by some it is disowned^[]
^; and the books
Since the reformation, the exact role of the apocrypha in the Christian
has been disputed. The Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches see these
as authoritative Scripture. The Jews, who also use the Palestine canon,
not recognize them as inspired books, but regard them as having high
authority as a valuable history of their nation; though carefully
distinguished from canonical scripture, they are quoted in Talmudic
Protestants have seen these books as suitable for edification, but not
authoritative Scripture. The Church of England (Anglican / Episcopal)
recommends them “for example of life and instruction of manners, but
it not apply them to establish any doctrine.”
Development of the New Testament
During the formative period of the New Testament canon, decisions had to
made regarding what principle(s) marked New Testament writings as
inspired. The general requirements became apostolic authorship,
and non-contradiction with the Old Testament.
Which Scripture was known to Jesus, His followers and the first Christians?
The answer is they knew both Palestinian Canon and Septuagint. Greek speaking
Jews also lived in Palestine and known as Hellenists (Acts 6:1). However all
New Testament writers mostly used Septuagint whenever they quoted from Old
Testament. It is not a matter of convenience (both used Greek), because at
few places they still quoted from Palestinian canon (translated into Greek).
As mentioned above, Septuagint has textual difference compared to Palestinian
canon. A good example is the famous prophecy about Jesus virgin birth in
Isaiah 7:14 quoted in Matthew 1:23. The Palestinian canon does not say
“virgin” but “young woman” while the Septuagint does say “virgin” (note that
both Hebrew and Greek have different words for virgin and young woman).
Some books considered sacred by the early church were eventually left
of the New Testament canon. These include the Apocalypse of Peter and
Acts of Paul, the Gospel of Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the
By the early 4th century, twenty out of the twenty-seven books were
readily and universally accepted: the four Gospels, Acts, the Pauline
epistles, and the first epistles of John and Peter. Hebrews, 2 and 3
Peter, Jude, James, Revelation were disputed for a time: Hebrews bore
of its author and differed in style from the Pauline epistles; 2 Peter
differed in style from 1 Peter; James and Jude styled themselves
and not “apostles”; the writer of 2 and 3 John called himself an
an “apostle”; and Jude recorded apocryphal stories. By the end of the
century the 27-book New Testament canon was almost universally
most notable addition in some manuscripts is the Epistle to the
which was rejected by the Council of Florence (1439-43).
Until fairly recently (the last hundred years or so) the *King James*,
or *Authorized* version was the de facto English translation. In the
past hundred-or-so years, numerous English translations of the Bible
been issued by various people and groups; each new translation seeks
improve on previous translations in some way.
With all these competing translations, it can be difficult
to know which is the right one to use. My initial comment is, “don’t
about it too much.” Your main focus should be having a Bible and
If you are reading the Bible, even one of the mediocre translations,
moving in the right direction.
With a few exceptions, most of the English translations
listed below are pretty good Bibles. I cannot tell you which Bible is
right one for you. Choosing the “wrong” translation will at most, annoy
and cost you up to a hundred dollars. But I can offer some insight into
differences between translations, which may help you in the
All English Bibles are translations. The original texts
were written in Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic. Despite the claims of some
people, Jesus *did not* speak King James-style English. The
in Bibles boils down to a difference in translation. English Bible
translations are classified by two factors: the principles of
and source texts utilized.
Principles of translation
There are three main principles of
translation: **formal equivalence** (word for word), **dynamic
equivalence** (thought for thought), and **paraphrase**.
When translators seek **formal equivalence**, the original language
is translated word for word, as closely as possible. All the words in
source text are translated, and any words added for clarity are
italicized. This approach has the advantage of being very accurate and
true to the text with few interpretive assumptions, allowing the
full liberty in textual interpretation.
The disadvantage of formal equivalence is that idioms or
slang phrases can mislead or confuse the reader. These phrases, when
literally translated into another language, can take on new meanings.
Imagine how someone, who does not speak English, would interpret
such as “bury the hatchet” or “piece of cake” or “under the weather.”
same thing can occur with the Bible, which was written by a different
in a different time.
When translators seek **dynamic equivalence**, the original language is
translated in a thought for thought method, in an attempt to express
meaning of the original text. The primary criticism of dynamic
is that words which do not appear in the source text are added and
deemed unimportant are omitted. In general, these added or omitted
never italicized or in any way distinguished from the words of the
text. In addition, the grammatical forms of words and phrases are
changed (pronouns changed into nouns, nouns into verbs, two different
or phrases combined into one, and similar changes).
The advantage of dynamic equivalence is that idioms or
slang phrases are translated or expanded into equivalent modern
grammatical corrections are made to phrase the text in an
manner. This makes the text easier to read and understand.
Paraphrase translations are produced to make the text as easy to read
understand as possible. A paraphrase translation takes a “big picture”
approach, trying to explain the general idea of a passage or story.
The discussion of source texts can be a
complicated, and often contentious one. There are no known original
manuscripts for any of the books in the Bible, and the ancient
differ from each other to various degrees. This may raise a red flag
some people, but allow me to put in perspective. The New Testament has
ancient manuscript support than any other body of ancient literature.
are over five thousand Greek and eight thousand Latin manuscripts and
fragments which date before the fifth century. In comparison, the
*Iliad* by Homer is second with only 643 ancient manuscripts that
Three main bodies of text have developed: the **Majority
Text**, the **Textus Receptus**, and the **Critical Text**. Each of
these has been developed by people seeking to find what was originally
written. The methods of determining what was originally written varies
group to group, however.
The **Majority Text** is so-named because it is developed
with the assumption that the original text is whatever appears in the
*majority* of the ancient manuscripts.
The **Textus Receptus** is the Greek Text compiled by
Erasmus in 1516. This was considered the classic text for the New
until the discovery of numerous older texts in the last hundred or so
It is the text that Tyndale’s English translation, the Bishop’s Bible,
turn, the King James version is based on.
The **Critical Text** has been developed by textual
critics, based on the idea that the text of the Bible should be
like any other ancient manuscript. For a long time, the Greek used in
New Testament (Koine Greek) confused scholars somewhat, because the
Testament was the only known document written in that particular Greek
dialect. However, the discoveries of numerous papyri in the last
years have shown that the New Testament was written in the language of
everyday people: the same language used in writing wills, private
receipts, shopping lists, etc.^[]
Instead of tradition, or a raw count of manuscripts, choices
in the Critical Text are made based on likelihood of authenticity, and
manuscript age. The main Critical Texts of today are the *Greek New
Testament* (4th Edition) published by the United Bible Societies, and
*Novum Testamentum Graece* (27th Edition) published by Nestle and
Which translation should I read?
That is for you to decide,
and it is not a simple question. To quote from *The Complete Guide to
> “… for what? for reading? for studying? for memorizing? And best for
> for young people? for adults? for Protestants? for Catholics? for
> Jews?” My
> responses are not intended to be complicated; rather, they reflect
> complexity of the true situation. Whereas for some language
> there is only one translation of the Bible, English-speaking people
> hundreds of translations. Therefore, one cannot say there is *one*
> single *best* translation that is *the most* accurate.
For serious study, I prefer a Bible which strives for formal
and, as such, I use the New King James (NKJV
). It is a fairly literal
translation, and though it is based on the *Textus Receptus*, it
includes notes for every textual difference between it, the Majority
the Critical Text.
For day-to-day reading, I really enjoy *The New Living
). No other English translation of the Bible has the
level of approachability and immediacy. I wouldn’t develop a hard-core
doctrinal stand based on the wording of the NLT
, but it does a superb
rendering the text in modern English, and provides footnotes for verses
significant textual variance.
Listing of English Translations
The following graphic was borrowed from the
[Zondervan Bibles] website.
I thought it provided a nice visual spread of which translations are
literal, vs. paraphrased. They have a vested interest in the NIV,
its presence in the center of the graphic.
American Standard Version (ASV)
(1901) Formal equivalence,
long regarded as the most literal translation of the Bible, which makes
very popular for careful Bible study, but not for ease of reading.
Amplified Bible (AMP)
(1964) Formal equivilence, Critial
Text. The Amplified Bible seeks to bring out *nuances* of the original
languages. The text is expanded with sets of brackets and parenthesis
bring out the hidden meanings and concepts of Greek and Hebrew words.
Revised in 1987.
Analytical-Literal Translation (ALT)
equivilence, Majority Text. Extrememly literal translation produced by
Gary Zeolla, includes extensive notes and aids. One of only two
versions based on the Majority Greek Text. Currently New Testament
Authorized Version (AV)
Another name for the [King James
Version][King James Version (KJV
Contemporary English Version (CEV)
Equivilence, Critical Text. Written at an elementary-school reading
Cotton-Patch Version (CPV)
(1960) Extreme dynamic equivalence,
to the point of absurdity. Translated by Clarence Jordan. Replaced
and places of ancient culture with items of modern ones. Palestine
transformed into the modern American South; Jerusalem turned into
Matthew the tax collector worked for the Internal Revenue Service; and
became a roughshod inhabitant of Valdosta, Georgia.
(1890) First published in 1890 by John
Nelson Darby, an Anglo-Irish Bible teacher associated with the early
the Plymouth Brethren. Darby also published translations of the Bible
(1609) Catholic translation based on
Jerome’s Vulgate. The standard English translation for Catholics for
hundred years. Revised in 1752 by Bishop Challoner.
(1995) Dynamic equivilence, designed to be an
accurate, readable translation, using modern English language idioms
convey the meaning of the original texts. Produced by a
diverse, 75-member team of translators, linguists, English experts,
independent biblical-language scholars.
Good News Bible (GNB)
(1974) Dynamic equivalence, written
at a 6th-grade reading level in contemporary English. Revised in 1993.
Also known as *Today’s English Version*.
Jerusalem Bible (JB)
(1966) Dynamic equivalence, translated
from the French *La Sainte Bible*. The French version was praised as
being “one of the greatest achievements of renascent Catholic biblical
scholarship” because of the abundance of footnotes and introductions.
English version, included the notes and added text. Revised and
New Jerusalem Bible (NJB
) in 1966
King James Version (KJV)
(1611) Formal equivalence,
Textus Receptus. In 1604, King James I of England decreed a new
of the Bible into English be started, “to deliver God’s book unto
people in a tongue which they can understand.” With the hard work of
translators, it was finished in 1611, just 85 years after the first
translation of the New Testament into English appeared (Tyndale, 1526).
Authorized Version, or King James Version, quickly became the standard
English-speaking Protestants. While technically easy to read because
shorter words and smaller vocabulary, the 17th-century English makes
difficult for many people to understand.
Literal Translation of the Bible (LITV)
(1995) 3rd Edition;
Formal equivalence, based on 1894 Scrivener Textus Receptus.
Translation by Jay
P. Green, it grew out of his work on the Interlinear Greek-Hebrew
Interlinear Hebrew-Greek-English Bible is listed in parallel, with the
words, Strong’s numbers and the English meanings beneath; all words
the translator are in italic type.
(1971) Paraphrase of the Bible produced by
Kenneth Taylor, it is written in contemporary English, based on the
was written in an attempt ot help his children better understand the
(199?) Paraphrase produced by Eugene Peterson,
designed to be an easy-to-read, modern language Bible. Uses the tone
modern American English, while maintaining the meaning (and idioms) of
New American Bible (NAB)
(1970) Formal equivilence, Textus
Recepticus. Catholic translation published under the the direction of
, developed by the Catholic Bible Association of America.
a 6th-grade reading level, strives to be a clear translation written in
New American Standard Version (NASB)
equivalence, sought to render grammar and terminology in contemporary
English, while preserving the literal accuracy of the 1901 ASV
attention given to the rendering of verb tenses to give the English
rendering as close as possible to the sense of the original Greek and
texts. Updated in 1995.
New English Bible (NEB)
(1970) Dynamic equivalence,
translated into contemporary *British* English; the first British
translated from the original languages since the KJV
New English Translation (NET)
(1996) Formal equivalence,
Critical Text. A completely new translation of the Bible “from the
currently available Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts.” Includes over
text-critical, lexical, and exegetical notes. As of 1999, the New
New International Version (NIV)
(1973) Dynamic equivalence,
Critical Text: produced by 115 translators, attempt at “an accurate
translation, suitable for public and private reading, teaching,
preaching,memorizing, and liturgical use.” Approximately 7th-grade
New International Readers Version (NIrV)
equivalence, Critical Text, based on NIV
, with 40 additional
stylists, and simplifiers. At a 3rd-grade reading level, it uses
short words and sentences for a version that is easy to read and
According to Zondervan, is was “designed to help young children and
readers understand the Bible for themselves and create an easy
from a children’s Bible to an adult Bible.”
New King James (NKJV)
(1982) Formal equivalence, Textus
Receptus. Written at a 7th-grade reading level in contemporary English,
retains the poetic style of the original King James. It was produced as
revision of the KJV
, intended to make it easier to read.
New Living Translation (NLT)
(1996) Dynamic equivalence,
Critical Text. 90 Bible scholars and English stylists worked seven
an update of [*The Living Bible*][Living Bible]. It was
completed in 1996. Based on original sources, the goal of the NLT
produce the closest natural equivilent, using the vocabulary and
structures of modern English. The publisher states it is, “a
translation that is accurate, easy to read, and excellent for study.”
New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)
equivalence, written in contemporary English, seen as a revision to the
with gender-inclusive language.
New World Translation (NWT)
Translation used by Jehovah’s
Witnesses. The NWT
is purposely mistranslated to support Jehovah’s
Revised English Bible (REB)
(1989) Dynamic equivalence, a
revision of the New English Bible (NEB
Revised Standard Version (RSV)
(1946) Formal equivalence, one
of the most widely read English translations, it is a revision of the
(Authorized Version of 1611, otherwise known as the King James Version)
(American Standard Version of 1901), utilizing the best texts
Revised Version (RV)
(1881) Formal equivalence, Textus
Receptus, update to the King James version.
Today’s English Version (TEV)
See [Good News Bible][Good News Bible (GNB
Young’s Literal Translation (YLT)
(1898) Formal Equivalence,
translation by Robert Young who also compiled Young’s Analytical
Extremely literal translation that attempts to preserve the tense and
usage as found in the original Greek and Hebrew writings.
Listing of Bible Types
Interlinear Bibles (there are many types)
typically show at least one English translation alongside the original
Greek, Hebrew, or Aramaic text, with notes on word usage, and
of the Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic words. Some interlinear Bibles
the *Interlinear KJV
Parallel New Testament* and JP
*Interlinear Hebrew - Greek - English Bible*.
Life Application Bible
Published by Tyndale in 1987, revised in 1993. Developed by *Youth for
Christ* to help apply the Bible to everyday life, includes personality
profiles of Biblical characters. Strong emphasis on application. Has
explanatory and historical information in its introductions, charts,
Available in KJV
MacArthur Study Bible
Developed by John MacArthur, a result of 30 years of study and
Includes 20,000 study notes, book introductions and outlines, outline
Systematic Theology, 200-page topical index, charts, calendars, and
Available in NKJV
Nelson Study Bible
350 word studies, 32 pages of full-color charts. Available in NKJV
NIV Study Bible
Extensive textual notes including comparative interpretations. Includes
study notes, concordance, introductions to each book, and maps. NIV
New Open Bible
Includes concordance, maps, charts, various essays on specific words
concepts, text-critical notes, extensive “Topical Index to the Bible”,
*fantastic* book introductions and outlines. Strives for doctrinal
objectivity. Available in KJV
. This is my primary study
Ryrie Study Bible
Dispensational, but not as emphatic as Scofield. Developed by former
Theological Seminary professor Dr. Charles Caldwell Ryrie. First
in 1986, with an “Expanded Edition” released in 1995. Contains
introductions, extensive notes, 22-page “Synopsis of Bible Doctrine”
Definately a theological study Bible, as opposed to a “practical
Doctrinally oriented. Available in KJV
Scofield Study Bible
Strong dispensational, fundamentalist outlook. First published in 1909,
revised in 1917 for KJV
. 1967 update (called the New Scofield Study
for other versions. Excellent cross-reference system, notes in center
and as footnotes. Includes maps, “Dictionary of Scripture Proper
Doctrinally oriented. Available in KJV
Spirit-Filled Life Bible
Pentecostal / Charismatic bias, has special sections on applying Bible
everyday life. Needs-oriented. Has book introductions and textual
Special “Kingdom Dynamics” sections discuss topics such as evangelism,
faith, prosperity, spiritual gifts, and healing. Contains some
theology and more extreme “word-of-faith” elements. Available in KJV
Thompson Chain Reference
Released in 1908 by Frank Charles Thompson, includes references in
link Scriptures on 4000+ subjects. Includes archeological notes and
studies. Unfortunately, the word chains are based on English words, not
the original Greek and Hebrew, and are therefore very limited in
for serious study. Attempts to be doctrinally objective. 5th Improved
Edition released in 1988. Available in KJV
The following web sites offer additional information on Bible versions,
translations, etc. I do not endorse any particular view expressed on
these sites. These links are provided only as a convenience.
[Online Bible] — Free Bible
software. Download and use numerous Bible translations, commentaries,
[Darkness to Light -
Bible Version Controversy]
[Jay Forrest’s Bible Search
Engine] — Over 20 versions, English, Greek, Hebrew, French, German,
)] in an on-line, browsable format.
[Paul Bessel’s Bible Versions
****: Deuteronomy 31:9,26;
2 Kings 22:8; Joshua 24:26; 1 Samuel 10:25.
****: 2 Kings 22:8; Isaiah
29:18, 34:16; Daniel 9:2.
****: Nehemiah 8:2,3,14.
****: 2 Maccabees 2:13.
****: Malachi 4:4-6.
****: 2 Maccabees 2:23;
****: Baruch 1:2 compared
with Jeremiah 43:6,7.
****: Basics of Biblical
, William D. Mounce,
1993, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI
****: The Complete Guide
to Bible Versions
W. Comfort, Ph.D.
c1996. Wheaton: Living Books - Tyndale
****: Holy Bible : New
Living Translation. 1997, c1996.
Wheaton: Tyndale House.